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Monthly Archives: September 2013

Stephano Perrone

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Tinca Veerman , “Faceminiature No.1” (2013)

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Djuno Tomsni – HERE!, 2012

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jenistax.tumblr.com

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Constructivism was an artistic and architectural philosophy that originated in Russia beginning in 1919, which was a rejection of the idea of autonomous art.  the purpose of the movement was for social purposes.

Russian Constructivism was a movement that was active from 1913 to the 1940s. It was a movement created by the Russian avant-garde, but quickly spread to the rest of the continent. Constructivist art is committed to complete abstraction with a devotion to modernity, where themes are often geometric, experimental and rarely emotional. Objective forms carrying universal meaning were far more suitable to the movement than subjective or individualistic forms. Constructivist themes are also quite minimal, where the artwork is broken down to its most basic elements. New media was often used in the creation of works, which helped to create a style of art that was orderly. An art of order was desirable at the time because it was just after WWI that the movement arose, which suggested a need for understanding, unity and peace. Famous artists of the Constructivist movement include Vladimir Tatlin, Kasimir Malevich, Alexandra Exter, Robert Adams, and El Lissitzky.

Tatlin’s most famous piece remains his “Monument to the Third International” (1919-20, Moscow), a 22-ft-high (6.7-m) iron frame on which rested a revolving cylinder, cube, and cone, all made of glass which was originally designed for massive scale. After the 1917 Revolution, Tatlin (considered the father of Russian Constructivism) worked for the new Soviet Education Commissariate which used artists and art to educate the public. During this period, he developed an officially authorized art form which utilized ‘real materials in real space’. His project for a Monument of the Third International marked his first foray into architecture and became a symbol for Russian avant-garde architecture and International Modernism.

Monument to the Third International

Other painters, sculptors, and photographers working during this time were usually involved with industrial materials such as glass, steel, and plastic in clearly defined arrangements. Because of their admiration for machines and technology, functionalism, and modern mediums, members were also called artist-engineers.

 

 

 

 

Surrealism: A 20th century movement in art and literature that sought to release the creative potential of the unconscious mind.

Surrealism originated in the late 1910s and early ’20s as a literary movement that experimented with a new mode of expression called automatic writing, which sought to release to the imagination of the subconscious.

It was officially consecrated in Paris in 1924 with the publication of the Manifesto of Surrealism by Poet Andre Breton.

Breton, a trained psychiatrist, along with many other French poets were influenced by the psychological theories and dream studies of Sigmund Freud.

Breton supported visual expression by reproducing the works of artists such as Picasso in the journal La Revolution Surrealiste and organizing exhibitions that prominently featured painting and drawing.

Surrealism in visual arts is most expressed by abstract expressionism.

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The Wolf-Table

 

 

 

Kazimir Malevich

               

Born February 23, 1879 died May 15, 1935

Kazimir Malevich was a Russian painter who pioneered the Suprematism movement, which was a style of avant garde art that focused around geometric shapes.

He was born in Kiev, which is now in present day Ukraine. His parents were of polish descent and they moved to Kiev after the January Uprising of 1863 which was where polish people living in the former Polish-Lithuanian Common-wealth rebelled against Russia’s enlisting of Polish men into their army. The Uprising lasted two years from 1863 until 1865.

Kazimir’s father, Seweryn Melawicz was the manager of a sugar factory. His parents had fourteen children and among them, Malevih was the oldest.

Growing up Malevich moved around the villages of Ukraine to and from sugar-beet plantations. He did not know of any professional artist because he never lived around the wealth in society but he made embroidery and decorated walls and stoves.

After the death of his father in 1904, Malevich moved to Moscow and studied at the school Moscow School of Painting, Sculpture, and Architecture. In Moscow he studied and exhibited his art developing his style in an Avant Garde manner with influences of Cubism and the Russian folk art called lubok. In 1912 he described his works as “Cubo-Futuristic”

In 1914 Malevich exhibited his works in the Salon des Independants in Paris.

In 1915 Malevich presented his manifesto for Suprematism to the world, entitled From Cubism to Suprematism. This included the works of Black Square and White on White.

 

 

 

After his success in the modernist art movement, Malevich became a member of the Collegium on the Arts, and the Commission for the Protection of Monuments and the Museums Commission until 1919. He also taught at the Leningrad Academy of the Arts, the Vitebsk Practical Art School, The Kiev State Art Institute, and the House of the Arts in Leningrad.

In 1923 he became the director of Petrogard State Institution of Artistic Culture until 1926 when it was force to close after comments of it being counter revolutionary by a local newspaper. By then Social Realism was the style Communists had adopted and even though all of its rules contradicted Malevich’s own beliefs about art, he put up with it anyway in order to not gain attention from the communist party.

Eventually he left Russia and traveled to Warsaw where he was welcomed by the pioneers of the Unism movement, Wladyslaw Strzeminski and Katarzyna Kobro. This was a movement that was highly influenced by Suprematism. After Warsaw he went to Berlin and Munich where he was first greeted by the recognition he deserved. He left his paintings behind in Germany when he left to returned to the Soviet Union and the change because the nearing of Lenin’s death and Trotsky’s fall from power foreshadowed a change in the social attitude towards Modernist art. This came true and authorities and critics banned Malevich from making his art. He responded by saying “Art does not need us, it never did”.

In 1927 he wrote the book, The World as Non-Objectivity.

On May 15th, of 1935 Kazimir Malevich died of Cancer.

 

 

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